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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

INFLUENCE OF HOT WORKING ON STEEL.
269
Table XIV-J, which shows the comparative results on hand and guide rounds from the same heats.
A guide round is made in one pass from an ellipse, while a hand round is put through the same pass several times, being turned one-quarter way each time in order to obtain a true circular section. This has the effect of finishing trte bar somewhat cooler than a guide
TABLE XIV-K.
Changes in the Physical Properties of Steel by Variations in the Details of Plate-Rolling; Classified According to Strength of Preliminary Test.
Limits of ult. strength of preliminary test; Ibs. per square inch.		Thickness of plate ; in inches.	Number of beats tested.	Increase in ultimate strength from preliminary test to plate ; pounds per square	Ultimate strength; Ibs. per sq. in.			Elastic limit of plate ; Ibs. per square inch.	Elastic ratio of plate; per cent.	Elongation of plate in 8 inches ; per cent.	Beduction of area of plate; percent.
					Finished plate.	Preliminary test bar.	Average increase from preliminary test to plate!				
Basic open-hearth steel.	o	&: i	12 18 13 19	more than 7500 less   than 7500	60040 56475	49479 51177	10561 5298	44659 42570	74.4 75.4	25.94 26.31	62.9 52.3
				more than 5500 less   than 5500	57807 54799	50020 51083	7787 8766	40407 89675	69.9 72.4	26.94 28.78	57.4 61.1
	52000 to 58000	* j A	94 68 69 60	more than 4000 less   than 4000	59582 58328	54096 55741	5486 2582	44653 43028	74.9 78.8	26.44 27.10	59.0 55.3
				more than 8000 less   than 3000	58705 57021	64018 55328	4692 1698	40420 40266	68.9 70.6	28.50 28.37	56.9 57.8
			10 16 7 10	more than 8000 less   than 8000	59414 56501	58557 54786	5857 1715	88222 86525	64.3 64.6	28.09 30.58	69.9 58.5
				more than 8000 less   than 8000	59135 66977	53934 55840	5201 1187	88078 86770	64.4 64.5	27.90 27.18	67.9 52.5
p	58000 to 64000	3 A	8 4	more than 2000 less   than 2000	62228 61425	69506 60550	2722 875	42687 42325	68.6 68.9	25.69 25.41	61.0 61.0
			11 9 19 14	more than 1000 less   than 1000	61827 69022	59706 69820	2121	42027 89875	68.0 67.6	25.12 24.46	68.2 65.5
		*		more than 1000 less   than 1000	61174 60298	59578 60408	1601	40157 89698"	65.7 65.8	24.19 24.69	50.2 48.7
round, and thus naturally gives a higher ultimate strength, while it also works the skin of the piece during the finishing process without any great reduction in diameter. It will be seen that nothing is gained by this operation, for, although the guide rounds are slightly reduced in strength, they are considerably better fn elongation and reduction of area.                              ..
SEC. XIYi.—Changes in tJie 'physical properties of steel by vari-